The background of Ozonolysis

Ozonolysis, or “oxidative cleavage” originated in the 1800’s with its inventor, Christian Friedrich Schönbein. The reaction additionally is attributed come Carl Dietrich Harries, therefore you might hear this reaction termed “Harries ozonolysis”. You might be thinking, “Umm... Why carry out I require to recognize this?”. The answer is, fine you don’t! (But in instance you were wondering, currently you recognize & have the right to tell your friends).

You are watching: Give the correct organic products, in any order, for the following ozonolysis reaction:

Ozone Structure

It is in easiest terms using ozone, or O3 (the framework is shown over with exactly formal charges) to cleave carbon-carbon dual bonds (C=C) to develop various carbonyls.


1. Aldehydes (CHO), and ketones (CH3COCH3) deserve to be formed through reductive workup. This refers to what is presented under the arrowhead below. Me2S is likewise DMS and also stands because that dimethyl sulfide.

Ozonolysis Retrosynthesis

Now I’m certain you’re wondering, which framework was our beginning material? For the answer scroll down just a bit, but very first try to attract it out!

2. Carboxylic acid (COOH, CO2H) can likewise be formed also except the is through an oxidative workup action instead. H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) is the reagent come look out for since as seen listed below it turns:

- ends of alkenes with 1 –H ≠ Aldehydes but Carboxylic Acids instead

Ozonolysis with Oxidative Workup

Answer indigenous above:

Di-substituted Alkene


Commonly watched is the usage of O3, which is ozone (structure displayed above), in the visibility of a reducing agent such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS, Me2S, S(CH3)2) or zinc & acetic mountain (Zn/HOAc). Thus a full reaction may look like this:

Ozonolysis Reaction

Now together we said, instead of DMS under the arrowhead you may additionally see zinc and also acetic acid. Beware that the other means “acetic acid” deserve to be created in addition to HOAc. Lock are: <AcOH, CH3COOH, CH3CO2H>

This form of device is referred to as ozonolysis v reductive workup.

In instance you need to know:

After the palliation takes location our Zn or DMS will connect to the remaining third oxygen from our O3that is not checked out in our final product. Due to the fact that of this, together with our carbonyl commodities we will additionally find DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) or ZnO (zinc oxide) developed as well.

api/deki/files/143740/1525722962678.webp?revision=1" />Molozonide Intermediate

This will certainly be your stormy intermediate i m sorry will additional undergo a rearrangement to kind your ozonide. An ozonide is more stable than the molozonide, however it still exhibits a same amount of instability.

Ozonide Intermediate

These are not diverted either and also will more be decreased or oxidized depending on if you monitor the “reductive workup” pathway or the “oxidative workup” pathway.

*Rudolf Criegee propose the mechanism because of this if girlfriend hear indigenous such as the ‘Criegee zwitterion’ or ‘Criegee intermediate’ that is why! the is referring to an intermediary that appears between the molozonide and also the ozonide.


Special Ozonolysis Cases

# 1 - Fragments

- You may sometimes hear the commodities of this reaction referred to as “fragments”. Every this is referring to is the various molecules the were formed when we broke apart our original C-C double bond.

- For example if 2 aldehydes (CHO) were her products, you can say the 2 aldehyde pieces were formed while performing one oxidative cleavage.

- This native is an ext commonly offered when lot of alkenes are cleaved.

#2 - Pyridine

- Pyridine is commonly seen together a buffer when any type of kind of acid is generated in the reaction.

#3 - Alcohols

- If NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) is provided as the reagent during the reductive workup we will yield alcohols instead of aldehydes & ketones together seen once Zn, or DMS is used.

- This is defined much better in the video clip below whereby we focus strictly top top reduction. To clock the full explanation just click here and scroll come 7:30!

Reduction with Sodium Borohydride

# 4 - Dichloromethane

- Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) in certain may be seen as a solvent to assist with cleavage of the ozonide intermediate to yield our product.

See more: Error: X86 Emulation Currently Requires Hardware Acceleration!

# 5 - Triphenylphosphine

- Triphenylphosphine (PPH3, PH3P) is among the other reagents used, just as us learned with Zn and also DMS to accomplish our product in a reductive workup mechanism.