Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the transfer of one electron indigenous a metal atom come a non-metal atom.

You are watching: Which of the following compounds would be expected to have the strongest ionic bonds?

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed between cations and anions.A cation is created when a steel ion loser a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal benefit a valence electron. Lock both accomplish a much more stable digital configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, with high melt points, and also are commonly soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic compound which disappear in H2O, do the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of one atom to attract electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a type of chemistry bond in which valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration for both atom involved. An ionic bond is based upon attractive electrostatic forces in between two ions of the opposite charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and also an anion. The shortcut is formed when an atom, typically a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a positive ion, or cation. One more atom, typically a non-metal, is maybe to get the electron(s) to come to be a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One instance of one ionic link is the formation of salt fluoride, NaF, indigenous a sodium atom and also a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loses its single valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough an are to expropriate it. The ions created are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due to electrostatic forces.

Formation of NaF: an electron is moved from Na come F. The resulting Na+ and F– ions are electrically attracted to every other.

At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, room crystalline solids under common conditions, and also have high melt points. Many of this solids space soluble in H2O and conduct electrical power when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electrical energy in systems is why these substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a great example the this type of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the bigger the difference in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the better the ionic character of the interaction.

Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids form when cations and anions are attracted.

Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond toughness in an ionic compound.

Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the components that influence it

Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is characterized as the energy required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, but it can be calculated using electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main components that add to the size of the lattice power are the charge and also radius of the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases warm into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic hard from gaseous ions.

Definition of Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an calculation of the bond stamin in ionic compounds. The is identified as the warmth of formation for ions of opposite charge in the gas phase to incorporate into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of salt chloride, NaCl, is the power released when gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ion come together to form a lattice of alternating ions in the NaCl crystal.

\textNa^+ (g) + \textCl^- (g) \rightarrow \textNaCl (s) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; \Delta H=-787.3\text kJ/mol

The an unfavorable sign that the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction displayed above).

NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, portrayed in purple and green respectively, alternating in the crystal lattice of solid NaCl.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be thought of as the energy required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).

Lattice power cannot be determined experimentally as result of the difficulty in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it can be calculate theoretically v an electrostatic examination of the crystal structure.

Factors affecting Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the adhering to model for lattice energy:

E = - \frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 \pi \epsilon_o r_o (1-\frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge number of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility that the solid; \epsilon _o is the permittivity of cost-free space; and r0 is the distance to the the next ion.

This version emphasizes two main determinants that contribute to the lattice energy of an ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and also the radius, or size, of the ions. The result of those components is:

as the charge of the ions increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be more soluble in H2O.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and anions in an ionic compound have the right to be identified by the loss or obtain of valence electrons necessary in bespeak to accomplish stable, noble gas digital configurations.The number of cations and also anions that are an unified in one ionic compound is the simplest proportion of entirety integers that deserve to be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any of the facets of group 18 of the periodic table, which room monatomic and, through very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has actually no surplus or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number proportion between facets in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion written of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is developed through the transfer of one or much more valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that space bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. Top top a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), kind a crystalline lattice and also are solids at regular temperatures and pressures.

Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride crystal lattice

The charge on the cations and also anions is determined by the variety of electrons compelled to accomplish stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic ingredient is then defined by the necessity that the resulting link be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we an initial note the digital configurations of these atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to shed its 2 valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, needs one extr electron to fill its external shell. Therefore, because that the resulting link to be neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any kind of ratio that 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two needs above, the formula because that ionic compound is commonly presented together the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number ratio of atom with positive integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the created form, while the cation surname is typically the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is readjusted to –ide, as in the instance of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, its suffix can vary, but is commonly either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of sodium phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– integrate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– integrate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- combine to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- incorporate to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- integrate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- integrate to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– combine to form KClO2

Video Summary

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the finish transfer of valence electrons, generally from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the ingredient atoms, definition all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is determined by the family member electronegativities of the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has actually a partial ionic personality to it, together a result of the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the tendency of an atom to lure electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are generally classified through the bonds in between constituent atoms. There room multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the complete loss or gain of one or more valence electron from a steel to a nonmetal, bring about cations and anions the are organized together through attractive electrostatic forces.


Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond between lithium and also fluorine to type LiF.

Example of a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom creates a bond through fluorine, they share a pair the electrons. However, because fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that common electron pair closer to itself and thus create an electric dipole. The lowercase greek delta written over the atom is supplied to suggest the presence of partial charges. This link is thought about to have features of both covalent and also ionic bonds.

In reality, the bond in between these atom is more complex than this model illustrates. The bond formed between any two atoms is no a purely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron density remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic matches covalent character of a shortcut is established by the difference in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the more ionic the nature of the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds space designated as ionic when the ionic element is greater than the covalent aspect of the bond. Bond that autumn in in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, space classified as polar covalent bonds. Together bonds space thought of as consisting the partially charged confident and negative poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, this designations are frequently advantageous in understanding and comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds commonly have greater boiling and also melting points, and they are additionally usually much more soluble in water than covalent compounds.